Energy (in)Security of Bangladesh: a major concern for sustainable development

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Per caput nutrient supply in developing countries Calories. Animal products are primarily a source of proteins and essential amino acids, but when they are a major constituent of the human diet they also contribute a significant proportion of total calories. In developed countries they provide more than 30 percent of calories in the diet Figure 2. In developing countries, however, this proportion is less than 10 percent, but they are a source of essential amino acids that balance the largely vegetable-based proteins. In developed countries, about 60 percent of the dietary protein supply is derived from animal products, which is higher than necessary for essential amino acids Figure 2.

This figure is only 22 percent in developing countries, which is less than desirable and takes no account of the skewed distribution in favour of the middle classes - the poor actually have a much lower protein intake. In these countries, where diets are composed of only a small number of staple foods, animal products are of great importance in preventing malnutrition as they are concentrated sources of the limited essential amino acids available in vegetable proteins of staple foods. Excessive consumption of calories, particularly fat from animal products, is often the cause of human health problems, especially in wealthy societies.

Figure 2 clearly demonstrates that excessive consumption of animal fat is not a problem for people in developing countries. In fact, animal fats complement an often-deficient calorie intake. Livestock help to alleviate seasonal food variability. Even though milk production is seasonal and surpluses cannot be stored as easily as cereal grains, there are simple technologies that allow herders to keep milk products for weeks or months in the form of clarified butter, curds or various types of cheese.

Animals, particularly small livestock, are slaughtered as the need arises. Meat preserved by drying, salting, curing and smoking can be used when other food sources are scarce. At the national level, livestock food products represent 27 percent of the total agricultural output. This subsector has achieved the greatest growth in production over the last three decades, and it is expected that it will continue to grow faster than all other agricultural subsectors in the next 20 years Table 5. The total value of milk and meat represents 3. In addition, there are various other products and services provided by livestock that are not accounted for in these statistics, but which would increase the total value of livestock considerably.

At farm level, cash can be generated regularly from direct sales of livestock products, such as milk, eggs and manure, occasionally from the sale of live animals, wool, meat and hides and from fees for draught power or transport services. An important feature of dairy income is its regularity. India's dairy development programme Operation Flood has created cooperatives that pay daily for the milk delivered, thereby providing regular income to thousands of poor farmers.

In many countries, the provision of animal draught power services for cultivation, transportation and the pumping of irrigation water is an important source of income that is particularly beneficial to landless owners of cattle or buffalo. Livestock also provide increased economic stability to the farm or household, acting as a cash buffer small livestock and as capital reserve large animals , as well as a deterrent against inflation. In mixed-farming systems, livestock reduce the risks associated with crop production. They also represent liquid assets that can be realized at any time, adding further stability to the production system.

The importance of livestock as a source of income for poor farmers is illustrated by the example of the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh, which assists only the poorest segment of the population and provides about 50 percent of its loans for the purchase of livestock, mainly large ruminants for milk production and draught power. Livestock as a generator of employment At farm level, dairying is a labour-intensive activity, involving women in both production and marketing. Labour typically accounts for over 40 percent of total costs in smallholder systems.

It has been estimated that for each 6 to 10 kg of additional milk processed per day in India, one working day is added for feeding and care. Data from Kenya show that smallholder production there is in the order of 25 kg per working day; similar levels were experienced on parastatal dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Goat, sheep, poultry and rabbit husbandry, especially in backyard production systems, provides an important source of part-time job opportunities, particularly for landless women and children.

The livestock-product processing sector has also been identified as a contributor to employment generation and the reduction of rural depopulation. The meat sector also provides significant employment opportunities. Based on UN published data and experience from FAO projects, estimates have been made of labour requirements in small to medium-sized slaughter and meat processing operations Table 7.

BOX 1 Do livestock of the rich eat the grain of the poor? Almost 50 percent of the grains produced in the world are fed to livestock, yet there remain about million people suffering from hunger and malnutrition mostly in the developing countries. Because surplus grains are produced in developed countries, it has been assumed that increasing livestock production will be based on grains at the expense of poor people. Is this true? Grain importation into developing countries has steadily increased, however, particularly to feed animals that are consumed by the minority higher-income sectors of society.

The problem is twofold: first, the poor cannot afford to purchase these cereals because of their low income, and, second, the importation of grains distorts the market for locally produced feed resources. Developing countries, which have neither the available grain resources nor the money to import them, should, however, follow the same philosophy for feeding their animals, that is, they should use their own locally available feed resources, not grains!

Historically, grains have been regarded as the most convenient, if not the only, way to feed monogastrics and even fatten ruminants. Subsidies to produce grains have assisted their use at the expense of feeding systems based on local resources. FAO has given high priority over the last 20 years to developing alternative feeding systems, for monogastrics as well as for ruminant animals, which make little or no use of grains. In five years, a project in China has made cropping zones become the most important producers of beef, using only urea-treated straw and cottonseed cake as supplements, with no use whatsoever of grains.

Sugarcane juice, palm oil, sugar palm juice and cassava tubers have successfully been tested to replace grains in pig feeding in about 15 countries in the tropical Americas and Asia. Other local energy sources are being actively sought as alternatives to grains. Livestock as a supplier of production inputs for sustainable agricultural development In mixed-farming systems, not only can farmers mitigate risks by producing a multitude of commodities, but they can also increase the productivity of both crops and animals in a more profitable and sustainable way.

In this context, livestock can make a major contribution to the efficient use of available natural resources. Livestock as a source of energy Draught animal power. Bovines, equines, camelids and elephants are all used as sources of draught power for a variety of purposes, such as pulling agricultural implements, pumping irrigation water and skidding in forests. The current number of animals used for draught purposes is estimated at million.

Fifty-two percent of the cultivated area in developing countries excluding China is farmed using only draught animals and 26 percent using only hand tools Gifford During the past ten years, there has been a percent increase in the number of cattle and buffaloes used for draught purposes as well as for meat and milk production. During the same period, the number of equines horses, mules and asses used primarily for draught and transport has not changed significantly. Compared with the use of tractors, animal power is a renewable energy source in many developing countries and is produced on the farm, with almost all the implements required made locally.

On the other hand, 90 percent of the world's tractors and their implements are produced in industrialized countries and most of those used in developing countries approximately 19 percent have to be imported. Animal traction, therefore, avoids the drain of foreign exchange involved in the importation of tractors, spare parts and fuel. Draught animals remain the most cost-effective power source for small and medium-scale farmers.

Draught animal power can be even more economic when one bullock is used instead of a pair or when a cross-bred cow is used instead of a male, since it reduces the cost of maintaining the larger herd necessary to satisfy both replacement and milk production requirements. It is expected that draught animal power will decline slightly by the year FAO, as will dependency on human power Figure 3 , but the contribution of draught animals will remain much more important than that of mechanical traction.

Given their importance as major contributors to food crop production, as a risk-avoidance mechanism and as a source of income, greater efforts need to be devoted to promoting the wider and more efficient use of draught animals. Source : FAO, c. In many countries, cow dung is highly valued as fuel for cooking and heating, reducing expenditures for fuelwood or fossil fuels.

It represents the major fuel supply for household use by millions of farmers in Asia, Africa and in parts of the Near East and Latin America. In India alone, million tonnes of dung are used for fuel every year. The collection and drying of dung for cooking generates income for women. It is also used directly as plaster and other building materials, while its ash can be used as fertilizer.

Biogas production. Biogas production from manure is an excellent substitute for fossil fuel or fuelwood for farmers in tropical countries. The best manure for these purposes comes from in descending order pigs, cattle, horses, camels and poultry Kumar and Biswas, Twenty-five kilograms of fresh cow dung produces about 1 m 3 of biogas. On-farm biogas production reduces the workload of women by eliminating wood collection or fuel purchasing.

It is person-friendly because of its convenience and increased hygiene, and it also provides a number of services, such as lighting, warm water and heating. Biogas can also be used to drive machinery such as water pumps. Effluent from biodigesters can be recycled as fertilizer - with even better results than the original manure Talukder, Ali and Latif, - or as a fish feed, or it may be used to grow azolla and duckweed. Biogas technology has been successfully adopted by millions of farmers in developing countries; about 25 million people use it in China alone Marchaim, New simple technology should be promoted to extend biogas development.

Biodigestion has positive public-health aspects, particularly where toilets are coupled with the biodigester, and the anaerobic conditions kill pathogenic organisms as well as digest toxins, for example, botulinum toxin. Livestock as a source of fertilizer and soil conditioner Nutrient recycling is an essential component of any sustainable farming system.

The integration of livestock and crops allows for efficient nutrient recycling. Animals use the crop residues, such as cereal straws, as well as maize and sorghum stovers and groundnut haulms as feed. The manure produced can be recycled directly as fertilizer. One tonne of cow dung contains about 8 kg N. It is also true that the development of critical infrastructure will require a huge amount of financial allocations and technical support. Bangladesh is innocent victim of, and not responsible for global warming and its impact and lacks sufficient capacity to finance mitigation in the above sectors.

So receiving ODA is a special legitimate right of Bangladesh from those developed countries who are historically responsible for carbon emission and global warming. In addition, the implementation process and follow-up and review of progress will be critically important for the attainment of the SDGs. Since independence, the CSOs and NGOs are playing key roles in the economic and social development of Bangladesh, engaging in various development sectors like health, education and economic uplift of poor people alongside Government.

Media has played a significant role to increase the awareness of people and communities on different development issues. But there is no legislative or constitutional provision or framework that supports the CSOs in engaging in the development planning and implementation process with Government on an equal footing. The Government has acknowledged the crucial role of CSOs in SDG implementation, but given the lack of policy space, it is often less effective because Government does not give proper importance to their role and contributions.

As the implementation and achievement of the SGDs depends on the inclusive participation of Government, the private sector and other development agents like civil society SDG target Autonomous local government seems to be very important for development and poverty reduction in Bangladesh. Internal Resource Mobilization should get priority and illicit finance flow loopholes stopped It is almost beyond the means of Bangladesh to ensure the necessary finance to achieve the SDGs.

Internal or domestic resources can play a vital role in this regard. The trend of illicit financial flows traps the Government in a shortfall situation in terms of domestic resource mobilization. In the last decades there has been an average resource loss of 1.

Energy security for socio-economic and environmental sustainability in Pakistan

The private, business sector and Multinational Corporations are engaged with these illegal financial outflow processes. Many developed countries have created so-called tax havens for both individuals and corporations, enticing them to shift money through various processes, legal and illegal. Swiss Bank deposits and second homes in Malaysia are burning examples of money laundering. The same is true in the case of Malaysia.

Since independence, the Government has been receiving ODA annually from development partners. However, the Government has been simultaneously facing illicit financial flows as an increasing trend. Such flows are one of the major causes that are hindering domestic resource mobilization as required. The so-called development finance or ODA has contributed to the national debt burden along with Debt Service Liabilities. These liabilities together with illicit financial flows are together becoming higher compared to annual ODA.

So stopping illicit flows is imperative to finance the SDGs as well as debt service relief as a poor country. The current money laundering laws and policies are not able to control these incidents. Because it is impossible for Bangladesh to stop illicit flows alone, global coordination and support is needed to control the situation, encourage Government to stop tax dodging by MNCs and illegal mobilizing of resources. This reflects the vested interest of developed countries, allowing illicit flows from the LDCs. Downward accountability and building democratic institutions is a must to achieve SDGs Government has prepared a development and progress report for donors and other development partners.

But at the national level, Government has little interest in showing accountability to its own people.

Renewable energy and energy efficiency

Ultimately, accountability toward local government, the media, civil society and the private sector are also important for the country to achieve the SDGs, helping resource mobilization through accelerated citizen initiatives in this regard. But unfortunately, Bangladesh seems to be leaving these spirits continuously. The reality of free and fair elections, free media, an independent judiciary, rule of law, autonomous local government and independence of different constitutional commissions is a bit far from the desired level.

This situation will surely hamper accountability for development. Bangladesh has a multi-driver development society; to achieve development goals those multi drivers should get the opportunity to contribute for which democratic instructions should be more active and must be correctly in place. Search this site:. End poverty in all its forms everywhere. Reduction in the head-count poverty ratio by about 6. Geophysical Setting The South Asia covers only 4. Land Degradation Land degradation due to water and wind erosion is a common phenomenon in South Asia. Water Scarcity Many parts of South Asia are suffering from water scarcity.

Pollution With increasing urbanization and demographic pressure, pollution is becoming a vital concern in South Asia.

Section II. Enhancing Sustainable Development in OECD Countries

Import of Hazardous Wastes in South Asia Disposal of industrial waste in environment increases the pollution level in land, air, and water. Afghanistan Afghanistan is a landlocked country of South Asia with , km 2 land area. It is a mountainous and very arid country of South Asia. Agriculture is the primary source of livelihood. Continuous drought and extensive degradation of its natural and biophysical resources are stunting its future development and making it more vulnerable to climate changes Table 1.

Table 1 Environmental issues, causes, vulnerable areas, and overall impacts in Afghanistan. Key environmental issues Main causes Vulnerable areas Impacts Soil degradation; deforestation; loss of biodiversity; overgrazing; desertification; soil erosion ; air pollution; water pollution ; food security risks; natural disasters such as earthquakes and droughts Population growth; increased demand for agricultural lands, fuelwoods, housing materials, etc. Agriculture; water resources; ecosystems; natural calamities; human health; and social development Water scarcity ; high temperature; reduced precipitation; increased evapotranspiration; vulnerability of agriculture, wetlands and ecosystems to desertification ; food insecurity; duration and frequency of drought; flash flooding from glacial melt ; increasing risk from malaria; malnutrition and migration.

Bhutan is also a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located at the eastern end of the Himalayas. The country is bordered by China to the north and by India to the south, east, and west. It contains most abundant forest and water resources. The country is considered as a sanctuary for biodiversity and a model for environmental stability.

But, now a days, climate change creates many threats to Bhutan. This country is more susceptible to flash floods and landslides due to accelerated glacier melt Table 2. Table 2 Environmental issues, causes, vulnerable areas, and overall impacts in Bhutan.

The Environmental Sustainable Development Goals in Bangladesh: 1st Edition (Hardback) - Routledge

Key environmental issues Main causes Vulnerable areas Impacts Soil erosion ; air pollution; water pollution; scarcity of drinking water; deforestation ; solid waste disposal; climate change; and glacial melt Rapid urbanization Agriculture; ecosystems and biodiversity; water resources; human health; and natural calamities Agricultural yield reduction; forest area degradation; biodiversity and habitat loss; floods; vector-borne and waterborne diseases. In consideration of area, India is the largest country of South Asia and the seventh largest country in the world.

The vastness of the country provides diverse geographical settings and varied climatic regimes from humid to arid that makes the land more vulnerable to the diverse environmental problems Table 3. Table 3 Environmental issues, causes, vulnerable areas, and overall impacts in India. Maldives, situated in the Indian Ocean, is an island nation of South Asia which consists of coral reefs and hundreds of smaller islands. It is the smallest South Asian country both in population and area. The coral reefs are the seventh largest in the world and rich in biodiversity and aesthetic value.

The country is exposed to the risks of extreme climatic events, sea level rise , and saline intrusion Table 4. Table 4 Environmental issues, causes, vulnerable areas, and overall impacts in Maldives. Key environmental issues Main causes Vulnerable areas Impacts Climate change ; sea level rise; saline water intrusion; coastal erosion; groundwater depletion; marine biodiversity loss; air and water pollution ; waste generation; coral reef bleaching Demographic pressure; marine-based tourism; sea level rise Coral reefs; coastal and marine ecosystems; water resources; disasters and hazards; tourism; public health; social development Ecosystem damages, loss of coral reefs; salinity intrusion in groundwater; increased intensity and frequency of climatic hazards such as cyclones , flooding, and inundation of islands; diseases; disturbance in tourism; and migration.

Nepal is one of the three landlocked countries in South Asia. Its topography ranges from very high altitudes of the Himalayan Mountain to the Gangetic Plains. Agriculture is the main livelihood option. This country is vulnerable to the climatic events too Table 5. Table 5 Environmental issues, causes, vulnerable areas, and overall impacts in Nepal. Key environmental issues Main causes Vulnerable areas Impacts Deforestation ; soil erosion and degradation; water pollution ; air pollution; loss of biodiversity ; waste generation and disposal; climate change; ice cap melting; natural disasters Rapid urbanization ; emissions from motor vehicles and industries; increased demands for timber; population growth; lands conversion Agriculture; water resources; terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity; human health Increased intensity of glacier lake outburst floods due to rapid glacial melt ; intensified scarcity of water; outbreaks of diseases ; agricultural production loss; glacial melt dependent ecosystems and biodiversity loss.

Pakistan, the second largest country of South Asia, comprises dry or cold climatic regimes. It is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. Alike climatic zones, geography also varies across the country. Main climatic changes found in these areas are glacial melt , sea level rise , and drought Table 6. Table 6 Environmental issues, causes, vulnerable areas, and overall impacts in Pakistan. The country is rich with mountainous and coastal biodiversity.

Weather condition of the country is hot and humid. Part of the country experiences long-term dry spells, and extensive areas suffer from water deficit. The country is in tremendous risk by predicted changes in climatic condition in terms of temperature, frequency and duration of drought , intensity of rainfall and storm surges, and sea level rise Table 7. Table 7 Environmental issues, causes, vulnerable areas, and overall impacts in Nepal. Bangladesh , the largest delta on earth, is situated in South Asia. It is bordered by India on the west, north, and east, by Myanmar on the southeast, and by the Bay of Bengal on the south Fig.

The area of the country is , km 2. Most of the country is low-lying comprising mainly the delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Mean elevations range from less than 1 m on tidal floodplains, 1—3 m on the main river and estuarine floodplains, and up to 6 m in the Sylhet basin in the northeast Rashid Only in the extreme northwest, elevations are greater than 30 m above the mean sea level.

The northeast and southeast portions of the country are hilly, with some tertiary hills over m above mean sea level Huq and Asaduzzaman Open image in new window. Population pressure is the main culprit for environmental changes Bremner et al. Rising of population leads to excessive demands for housing and consumption of goods and services. For meeting the additional need of house and foods, existing agricultural lands are converted into building construction, and marginal lands like forest lands are brought under cultivation Fig.

Encroaching and deforestation causes soil erosion , loss of soil fertility, siltation, flooding in river basins, changes in microclimate, habitat loss, loss of genetic diversity, ecosystem loss, and damages of environmental balance. Moreover, low-lying areas are also invaded for more housing and cultivation of more food grains; thus habitats of fish are encroached.

Similarly, shrinkage of pasture land affects livestock resources. Thus growing people over exploit the natural resources of the country Huq et al. In Bangladesh there are approximately 10, brick kilns Fig. According to the estimation of Department of Environment, about metric tons of fuelwood are required for manufacturing one million bricks.

Bangladesh Forest Research Institute BFRI estimated that, on average, ha of reserve forests are deforested annually where brick manufacturing plants play a vital role in this destruction. Moreover, the chimneys used by the manufacturers are totally environment unfriendly and spread unsafely the poisonous vapors, dust, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, florin, and lead into the lower atmosphere.

The Bangladesh Country Environmental Analysis reports that emissions of particulate matters from this kiln cluster are responsible for premature deaths annually Sarker In general different types of diseases like skin disease, eye irritation, and respiratory problems are recorded around the brick manufacturing kilns. Vast coastal area, high population density, and high poverty rate and reliance on natural resources tend Bangladesh to be one of the most vulnerable countries to extreme weather events.

At present, saline intrusion into the agricultural lands, drinking water Fig. Sea level rise is a long-term process, and if continued, an annual average of 7. If there is proper protection like construction and raising of dikes, the effect could be limited to about 14, people only WHO Flash floods occur mostly in the northeast and southeast regions of Bangladesh caused by heavy rainfall in bordering hilly regions Fig.

During flash floods the violent inflow from the hills run offs and washes away infrastructures, crops, and lives. Because of the steeper gradients in hilly areas, flash floods have less travel time and short-lived but more violent, sometimes causes landslides. Flash floods sometimes also occur in the northwestern region of Bangladesh due to heavy, localized rainfall Alam and Siddiqi Bangladesh experiences significantly frequent tropical cyclones each year Salek ; Paul ; Haque et al. At present 8.

South and south-eastern parts of the country are more exposed to and hit by tropical cyclones during last few years Figs. In Bangladesh, women are especially vulnerable to cyclone. During the most devastating cyclone in , the death rate in case of women was almost five times higher than the men Denissen In Bangladesh per capita cultivated land is only In such condition, any loss of land by riverbank erosion is shocking Rana and Nessa Rivers are dynamic in nature and riverbank erosion is a natural process Fig.

Channel changes due to bank erosion in one side and accretion of land in another side are the natural process. But sometimes it occurred due to anthropogenic activities like sand mining, infrastructure building on the riverbank, artificial cutoffs, construction of reservoirs, land-use alterations, etc. Li et al. River bank erosion causes socio-economic losses rather than killing. Loss of houses and agricultural land forces people for migration. Due to riverbank erosion in Bangladesh, almost , people were displaced yearly Mollah and Ferdaush Drought and desertification are other alarming environmental issues and greatest challenges for Bangladesh Ali North and northwestern regions of the country are suffering from drought Pender because of extreme temperature Denissen and water deficiency Stern Fig.

Deforestation leads to desertification in Bangladesh by reducing groundwater level that leads to soil dry, fragile, and easily erodible. Desertification already started at the central Barind area in the northwest part of the country. Besides deforestation, low soil fertility also causes aridity that leads to land degradation and ultimately desertification.

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Desertification originated great economic losses and human sufferings than any other environmental issues in Bangladesh. Between — and —, the relative effects of drought were more damaging than flood on rice production Ali ; Islam et al. Drought and desertification affect directly on food production, biodiversity , water resources, fisheries, socio-culture, economy, and human health.

Section I. Understanding Sustainable Development

Moreover, mortality rate of infant is twice in dry zones than the non-dry zones. Water pollution: Water pollution is the second most devastating pollution in Bangladesh. The main sources of water in Bangladesh are rainwater, surface water, and groundwater Ahmed Rainwater pollution includes acid rain that directly linked with air pollution. The intensity of acid rain is low in Bangladesh, sometimes found in Dhaka City. Surface water generally polluted by industrial wastes Islam et al. Mostly contributing industries for water pollution are pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, metal processing, food industry, fertilizer, pesticides, dyeing and painting, textile, tannery, etc.

Out of main rivers of Bangladesh, more than rivers directly or indirectly receive a large quantity of untreated industrial wastes and effluents Islam Everyday approximately tanneries of Dhaka city are discharging about 16, m 3 of toxic wastes Alam About — t of solid wastes are generated daily Rahman et al. This contamination transports to human bodies through food chain Chakraborty et al. Noise pollution: According to the World Health Organization WHO , noise is considered as the third hazardous environmental pollutant in Bangladesh following air and water pollution Muhit and Chowdhury Noise pollution produces from traffic, airports, ports, railroads, industries, construction works, loudspeakers, and in broader sense from urbanization Dewan et al.

Effects of noise pollution include hearing loss in human, nervous disorder, hypertension, headache, indigestion, peptic ulcer, degradation in lifestyle even death, and wildlife disturbances Kadiyali ; Tanvir and Rahman Noise pollution also creates birth defects and changes in immune system Passchier-Vermeer and Passchier It also increases workplace accident rates, stimulating aggression, and antisocial behavior Kryter According to the Department of Environment DOE , in peaceful areas the perfect sound condition for Bangladesh is 45 dB for the daytime and 35 dB for the night, while in case of residential areas, 50 dB sound is considerable for the daytime and 40 dB for night.

At present noise level in Dhaka City of Bangladesh is measured between 60 and decibel Alam Daily variation of noise level in decibel at different locations of Dhaka City is represented in Table 8. Table 8 Noise pollution in decibel at different places in Dhaka City. Source: Alam The first widely introduced alien species in Bangladesh is water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes Fig. With time it became invasive in nature and vigorously spreads throughout all wetlands Pallewatta et al.

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Introduction of acacia and eucalyptus into Bangladesh from Australia during the s created great controversial problems. These two genera are proven to be adversaries to the endemic flora and found as environmentally unfriendly species to Bangladesh Ameen Moreover out of all fish species that brought from abroad, 15 became more invasive. The most disastrous ones are Clarias gariepinus African magur , Pangasius giganticus giant pangas , and Oreochromis niloticus nilotica.

These were introduced from Thailand between and Rahman Deforestation induces climate change and global warming and thus initiates other environmental issues. Though forest area of Bangladesh is Only deforestation is the culprit for this forest condition. Indiscriminate felling of trees for industrial purposes in the greater parts of Dhaka, Mymensingh, and Rajshahi and for shifting cultivation in Chittagong Hill Tracts resulted an alarming depletion of natural forests. Large and irregular forest fires create intensive environmental impacts Holmes et al.

Forests of Bangladesh are tropical moist deciduous, so natural forest fire is a sporadic event here. But intentional man-made forest fire occurred several times in Bangladesh Fig. In last 14 years, there have been 19 fire incidents occurred in the Sundarbans. This intentional fire usually is created just before the monsoon in order to clear the lower land of forest to collect rainy water for fishing.

An enormous expansion of commercial shrimp cultivation and salt production recently appeared as another major environmental issues. Shrimp cultivation and salt production in the existing agricultural land Fig. Dikes of the shrimp enclosures hinder the free flow of tide water which causes acute salinity mostly during the month of April and reduce soil fertility rapidly. As a consequence, the land becomes unproductive for further crop production. The severe concentration of salinity in the soil increases vegetation mortality rate and damages forests.

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